Interpersonal Function in English and Farsi:Drawing Implications for Translation Equivalence

Interpersonal Function in English and Farsi:Drawing Implications for Translation Equivalence
 
M H Derakhshani_A lecturer at a University for Teachers
 in Tabriz
MHDK15@Yahoo.com

 
Abstract
    
                  According to Halliday (1985), ther are three broad functions for    language:ideational, textual,and interpersonal. Ideational function expresses content,textual function refers to itrasentential and intersentential relations,and interpersonal function establishes and maitains social relations .
      In this project I have explored eight different categories for the realization of interpersonality in Farsi and in English:
a)interpersonality in lexicon
b)interpersonality in passivization
c)interpersonality in introductory verbs
d)interpersonality in it clefts
e)interpersonality in modal auxiliaries
f)interpersonality in modal adjuncts
g)interpersonality in phrases/clauses
h)interpersonality in that clauses
I have then contrasted these realizations across the two languages, to draw implications for the characterizations of translation equivalence between the two languages.
 
Introduction
 
             Halliday in(1985) divides language functions into three categories,ideational,textual,and interpersonal. Ideational function expresses the content of the message.Textual function distinguishes a text from a set of unrelated sentences. Interpersonal function refers to the social function of the language which  helps us to establish and maintain social relations. Here we uderstand that living in the society is impossible without language. As Halliday (1985) mentions”…………… interpersonal function encompasses all language uses to express social and personal relations which,in turn, includes the speaker’s role in the speech event.
The realization of interpersonal function in a clause is in two parts:
     ۱-Mood  which includes Subject and  Finite.
                        The duke has given that teapot away.
                        Subject    Finite
                           MOOD
 
Finite: establishes a relationship between the action and the speech event and expresses the time of the verb.Moreover,Finite expresses Modality,too.Modality refers to the attitude,judgement,and assessment of the speaker about the performed action.
 
       ۲-Residue: predicator, complement, and adjunct are the components of the Residue. Predicator refers to a verb phrase, Copmlement refers to object, and Adjunct refers to adverbs and prepositional phrases.”(Pp74-77)
       I have analyzed more than five hundred English and Persian texts of different genres to characterize the realizations of interpersonality in both languages. In this article, first I have tried to present eight categories of interpersonality both in English and in Farsi and then I will try to draw implications for translation equivalence across the two languages.
 
 
                                            ********************************
 
Methodology
 
           This project is totally done through the descriptive, library method. More than five hundred English and Farsi texts of different genres were analyzed to locate the realizations of interpersonality in these two languages. Then the realizations were contrasted to find the similarities and differences.
For each case only a few examples are mentioned.
 
                                                *********************************
 
                Realizations of Interpersonality in English and Farsi
 
۱-Interpersonality in Passivization
 
                   Halliday(1985:p.86)mentions that when we expand the predicator to show modulation as in “you are supposed to know that”, we are trying to relegate the responsibility of the action to another participant,i.e.to impersonalize the transitivity. This is one among many strategies which we use in every day communications.
Even more, we can claim that it is a kind of assigning roles to the participants. Through passivization the speaker neutralizes his/her own role in the benefit of impersonalization I have analyzed a lot of texts(both in
 
 English and in Farsi) to locate the realization of interpersonality through passivization. Including all the examples here would be quite impossible, so I suffice only to a few examples.
                                             
 English Example:
                                  I am authorized to say the action we are
                                  now reporting may well bring the war within
                                  the measurable distance of its end.
 
 
Farsi Example:
این اطلاعات به مقوله های مختلفی تقسیم شده است.
                                                             
 
   از کسانی که نیروی خود را اعم از نیروی فکری یا بدنی معطل و بی اثر نگه داشته و به کار نمی اندازند سخت مذمت شده است  
 
 
            Here we can see that the speaker tries to impersonalize the process. In the English example, the speaker is reluctant to express his own authority; however, he tries to relegate this to another person who is known or unknown to the addressee.
                        
۲-Interpersonality in Modal Auxiliaries
 
             Modals are a group of finite verbal items that circumsribe the proposition. In other words,they limit the scope of transitivity in the clause structure. Through modals,judgements,attitudes and evaluations can be expressed. I think modal auxiliaries are well-known to my addressees,but it will not be harmful to include them here:
                  will,would,shall,should,may,might,can,could,must,
                   ought to,have to
 
These are modal verbal groups which have specific semantic function in the clause structure. Modal auxiliaries can express both modalities and modulations.Modalities are the speaker’s intrusion in the speech event.They express the probability and usuality scales.Modulations are related to the scales of obligation and inclination.As in the following:
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Modality type
 
                                                                                 ۱٫ Modalization
 
                                                                              (i) Probability (may be)
                                                                              (ii)usuality(sometimes)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                 ۲-modulation
                                                                              (i) Obligation (is wanted to)
                                                                              (ii) Inclination (wants to)
 
 
                        English Examples:
 
                                         a) Winston must achieve a moment of obedience.
 
                                         b) Human rights should not be used as a weapon
                                            to exert pressure on others.                                                                           
 
                                         c) We had to think of a sad story.
 
                                         d) We may be together for another six months.
                                          
                       Farsi Examples:
موضوع سخنرانی باید کاملا روشن و صریح باشد.
 
 
                                                                                                         
بعد از چنین تحقیقی نمی توان گفت که سومریان از چه نژادی بودند.                                   
 
 
 
 
                                             
 
                                                                                                           
 
 
۳-Interpersonality in “It Clefts”
 
          It Clefts are a kind of structures in which “It” has no specific semantic function in the sentence structure. It is only needed to distinguish “It is Ali.” from “Is it Ali?” We can see that “it” has no impact on “transitivity” or “participants” in the clause structure. But this “it cleft” structure may impose an effect on interpersonal component of the clause. In the clause” It was John who came first”, the language user tries to say that it was John not anyone else who came first. Here again in this example, “it cleft” seems to have some limiting function. Through “it cleft” the speaker limits the validity of the proposition to rest on John not anyone else.
                                                                                                                                                           English Examples:
 
                                         ۱٫ It was the priest who became aware of
                                             the hoof beats.
                                         ۲٫ It is the part which Collins
                                            rigorously suppressed from the eyes and
                                            ears of the general public.    
                                          
                                              
 
Farsi Examples:در حقیقت او بود که تمدن را به انسان آموخت.                                                                                                  
آن این است که پیشرفت تکنولوژی و علوم تا چه اندازه با پیشرفت فرهنگی جوامع همزمان است.                                                        
                                        
۴-Interpersonality in “That Clauses”
 
                In the clause complex, there are sometimes “that clauses” which follow certain types of verbs. “That clause” are considered to be the proposition in the clause structure. In the clause “Mary said that John cheated during the exam”. The first introductory part “Mary said” shows the interpersonal component in the clause. It is through this part that the speaker tries to draw himself aside and to put the responsibility to another one.
 
 
                 Halliday (1985) discusses this as “interpersonal metaphors”. He says these clauses consist of two clauses: (i) the projecting clause or alpha clause and (ii) the proposition or the beta clause. Halliday’s reasoning for the metaphoric uses of interpersonality in the above clause is that when adding a mood tag, it will be “didn’t he?” not “didn’t she?”  A few examples are given here:
 
English Examples:
     
                                  ۱٫ Mary said that John cheated during the exam.
                                  ۲٫ I believed that I had murdered my mother.
                                  ۳٫ I expect you were a beastly little swine in those
                                       days
                                  ۴٫ He knew that there was no danger.
 
Farsi Examples:
  در اینجا می افزایم که خیال یا تصویر نوعی تجربه ذهنی است.                                                                                                       
باید دانست که کار در زبان اصفهانیان به معنای مکتب و مدرسه است.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                      ====================================                                     
 
۵-Interpersonality in Modal Adjuncts
 
                Adjuncts or circumstantial are adverbials or prepositional phrases in the residue structure. Adjuncts are normally considered to belong to the transitivity system of clause, but certain kinds of adjuncts express interpersonality.Only “mood adjuncts” within the category of “modal adjuncts” show interpersonality. In other words, mood adjuncts are paraphrases of modal auxiliaries, for instance, the two clauses,”It may rain” and “it probably rains” have identical logical meaning. But the interpersonality has found two different realizations_ one is verbal (a modal auxiliary) and the other non-verbal (an adjunct).
                  
English Examples:
                     This was certainly true of him.
                     The art lover was rarely allowed to show that.
 
 
Farsi Examples:
شاید از آسیای میانه یا قفقاز بر خاسته از شمال به سرزمین بین النهرین آمده اند.                   ولی به ندرت مشاهده می شود که از حد کلی گوئی پا فراتر نهاده باشند.                                             
                                          ==============================
                                             
۶-Interpersonality in Introductory Verbs
 
         
          There are a group of verbs which are followed by “to infinitives”. In these structures, the first verb is not the main verb but shows the interpersonality.The main verb (action) comes in the form of “to infinitives. In the clause,” John managed to pass the exam” The action of the clause is ‘to pass the exam” .The first verb contains the interpersonality element of the clause. ( Lotfipur: in our personal communications) This is done by aggravating the process. This aggravation shows interpersonality.
 
English Examples:
                                       Finally,I managed to answer her questions.
                                       These exercises force the students to think.
                                       People want the government to find a cure.
 
Farsi Examples:
 
                           انسان همیشه سعی دارد به هر مسئله ای ازدریچه حس بنگرد.                 از مادرش در خواست کردتا همراه برادران رضاعی اش به صحرا رود.                                                                               ====================================                                                             
۷-Interpersonality in Lexicon
 
              Sometimes it is through lexical choices that the interpersonal component of the clause is realized. The speaker conveys his attitudes and judgments through judicious selection of vocabulary items. Not many examples are located in my text analysis, but I try to give a few examples.
 
  English Examples:
 
      All three tiny republics have popular front movements.
      There is the possibility of at last gaining their
       cherished independence.
       In heavily catholic Lithuania, in particular, resurgent nationalism
        is closely intertwined with religious fervor.
 
                                                                      
 Farsi Examples:
                                                امید است این تلاش ناچیزکه باالطبع عاری از کمبود و مورد استفاده دانشجویا ن وعلاقه مندان فن ترجمه قرار گیرد.
 
اما آذربایجان صد درصدجایگاه ترکان نشده بود.
 
 
                        
 
 
                                                                                                                                                           
۸-Interpersonality in Clauses/Phrases
 
             Clauses or Phrases may come in different places in a sentence. The statement is limited to the clauses or phrases used. In the clause, “In his view, there is not any ambiguity in the translated text.” The speaker conveys the proposition from a third person’s point of view. The validity of the proposition rests on that particular third person not on the speaker. It may also be added that by using a phrase or a clause the speaker tries to limit the proposition to other people’s views. 
                       
English Examples:
 
 In his view, there is not any ambiguity in the translated text.
 
To Orwell, the deliberate use of complicated language was                         one of the greatest sins.
 
I saw history being written, not in terms of what happened but of what ought to have happened, according to the party.
 
 
 
 
 
.
                                                                                              
Farsi Examples:
به گفته دیاکانوف حکومت ماد متشکل از یک قوم نبوده است.                                                                                                              
 طبق آخرین آمار مجامع بین المللی بیش از یک هزار میلیون نفر از افراد بشر درآمد سرانه شان از پنجاه دلار کمتر است.                    
                        
 
 
 
Discussion
 
Suggested Translation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Equivalence in Farsi
 
 
۱-Interpersonality in Modal Auxiliaries                                                                           
  
      a. can, could(توانستن )
                                                                                                        
      b.may, might (شاید)                                                                                          c.shall, will    (                               (خواهم-خواهی-خواهد-خواهیم -خواهید-خواهند                                                                                       
     d. would  ((می ـ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
     e.ought to,should,must,have to((باید                                                                                     
                                                     
                                               ==============================
 
۲-Interpersonality in “That Clauses”
 
       There is no difference between English and Farsi.
 
       The Farsi clauseاو میدانست که تمامی خدایان با اسامی دیگر و صفات دیگر خدایان دروغین بودند        can be translated into English as:
                                             
     
           He knew that all gods with other names and attributes were
           false gods. 
 
۳-Interpersonality in Modal Adjuncts
 
 
        Certainly: مطمئنا                                                                                                      
        Definitely                                                                قطعا   قطعا                                         
        Maybe, possibly, probably, perhaps                        شاید                                         
        Rarely, seldom, scarcely, hardlyبندرت                                                                    
       Evidently, clearly, apparentlyظاهرا                                                                           
       Yet, stillهنوز                                                                                                                 
       Completely, entirely, absolutelyکاملا                                                                       
       Quite, almost, nearlyتقریبا                                                                                         
       Really, actually                                                                                                 درواقع                        
                                                                                      ====================================================== 
۴-Interpersonality in “It Clefts”
 
     “It” should not be translated as”آن” in Farsi.
 
 
English:
       It was the police patrol, snooping into people’s windows.
Farsi:                               
 
گشت پلیس بود که از پنجره خانه های مردم مخفیانه داخل خانه را می پائید.
 
                                                                                                      
 
                          
 
۵-Interpersonality in Clauses/Phrases
 
   English and Farsi are the same.
 
 Farsi Clause:
اقتصاد به نظر نویسنده نقش اساسی در زندگی مردم ایفا می کند.
English translation:
 
Economics, in the writer’s view, plays a basic role in people’s lives. 
                 
    ==================================================                                      
 
۶-Interpersonality in Passivization
 
 There is no difference between the two languages.
 
 Farsi:
 
 در این تجدید نظر سعی شده است انشعاب رشته ها حتی الامکان تدریجی و کند باشد.
English:
 
In this revision, it is attempted to make the branching of the courses gradual and as slow as possible.
 
 
۷-Interpersonality in Introductory verbs
 
“To” of the infinitive can be translated as”تا”or as a ” that clause “in Farsi.
 
English:
It tries to refine the listener’s soul.
 
  Farsi:
 می کوشد تاروح شنونده را تصفیه کند.
 
English:
She seems to remember John Henry’s complaint.
  Farsi:
 به نظر می رسد که او گلایه جان هنری را به خاطر دارد.
 
   
 
 
۸-Interpersonality in Lexicon
 
Lexicon can be replaced across the two languages.
 
 English:
 All three tiny republics have popular front movements.
 Farsi:
تمام این سه جمهوریریز جنبش های جبهه خلق دارند.
 
======================================================
                                                             References
 
Halliday,M.A.K.(1985) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London:Edward Arnold
                
Lotfipur Saedi,Kazem. A professor of Applied Linguistics at Tabriz University(Now retired)
 

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه بیست و هشتم دی ۱۳۹۲ساعت ۲۰:۲۰  توسط mohammad hossein derakhshani  | 


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